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From half a draught, pure this one becometh ; From drinking a goblet, a lover that one becometh: At one draught, another swalloweth— The jar, the wine-house, the SakT, and the wine-drinker: All swallowed, —yet open remaineth his mouth [ 0 ocean-heart, mighty drinker! T HE sources, whence this note on sufi,ism has been derived are i. The definition of sixty-nine terms used in sufi,ism pp. The performances of darvishes pp. The Darvishes by Brown. What is here given to the Reader comprises more than a halft of the Misbahu-l-Hidayat.

Awarif al-Ma’arif – Maktabah Mujaddidiyah

He was a pious Shaikh, assiduous in spiritual exercises and in the practice of devotion. Those who wish further to pursue the subject of sufl. Unless sufijism be understood, the Divan-i-Hafiz cannot be understood. It is unnecessary to give instances ; easily may the student verify this statement by referring either to my translation of Hafiz, or to the original Persian. Let one instance suffice: Oft have I said, I say it once more. I, a wanderer, do not stray from myself.

I am a kind of parrot; the mirror is holden to me. What the Eternal says, I stammering say again. Give me what you will: I eat thistles as roses. And, according to my food I grow and I give: Scorn me not ; but, I know I have the pearl. And am only seeking one to receive it. Times I have said ; and again I say: Whether, the thorn I be or whether the rose, there is a sward-adorner God. By whose hand as it cherished me, I grew. O friends, me heart-bereft, astonied, censure not: A great jewel, I have ; and the master of vision the jeweller, God I seek.

Hafiz himself is determined to defy all such hypocritical interpretation, and tears off his turban and throws it at the head of the meddling dervis, and throws his glass after the turban. Nothing is too high, nothing too low for his occasion. Love is a leveller, and Allah becomes a groom, and heaven a closet in his daring hymns to his mistress or to his cupbearer.

This boundless charter is the right of genius. To this statement, would agree no one who had, in the original Persian, read Hafiz ; and had understood him. Despite the fact that Emerson wholly fails to understand Hafiz as the mystic poet, divine, immortal— strangely he admires him.


You may read Chaucer, Shakespeare, Ben Johnson, Milton; read Collins and Gray; read Hafiz and the Trouveurs — fact-books which all geniuses prize as raw material and as antidote to verbiage and. At the head of the various sections, the figures refer to the Persian text of the Misbahu-l-Hidayat — Roman figures to chapters.

To special notice, I wish to bring Maulavi Mirza Muhammad-i-Bisravi, who ren- dered me much help in this difficult work. This translation was made in a tropical country, in leisure moments, amidst the pressure and the stress of professional duties most exacting ; and under special cir- cumstances of harass and worry that it is not permissible to describe.

Calcutta ; January i8gi. Authorities on S u fi,ism. Oriental Library of Tippu Sultan, by C. Stewart, gives 1 15 excellent Persian works on Sufi, ism. History of Muhammadanism by C. History of Persia, Malcolm — vol.

Works of Sir W. Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, vol. Note by Sprenger on the earliest work on Sufi, ism.

Sind chap, viiiBurton. Modern Egyptians ull, iiiLane. Die Morgenlandische mystik, by Tholuck. Notes on Muhammadanism p. This Gulshan-i-Raz, translated by Whinfield. Catalogue, Oriental Manuscripts pp. Paper on the Sufis by Captain Graham, Bombay. From To Mahv obliteration and isbat confirm- ation They took the name of suff, a word derived from: To the name of sufi, they added the title of fakirbecause they renounced the chattels of the world and its joys.

In honour of Muhammad, who, at the battle of Uhud, A. The term sufi was first adopted by Abu Hashim, a Syrian Zahid d. But some say that the seed of sufi,- ism: Christ, produced pure wine. The man, who wore the blue woollen garment, was esteemed to be pure safi. At night, she used to go to the house-top, and to say: But, Thee, I have for my lover; and alone with Thee, I joy.

Admitting the danger of a poetical style in which the limits between vice and enthusiasm are so minute as to be hardly distinguishable, we must beware of censuring it severely; for aty ardent grateful piety is congenial to the undepraved nature of man, whose mind, sinking under the magnitude of the subject, and struggling to record its emotions, has recourse to metaphors, extending sometimes beyond the bounds of cool reason. Because the noblest feelings of man are morbidly exalted by this disease it has produced sublime poetry.

Eng,ish can equal the beauty of the poems of: Sufi, ism is not due to the introduction of systems of philosophy from India, or from Greece. It is the result of the development of Islam ; and is well worthy of the attention of the student.

Many consider Pantheism a: The Shaikhs and Sufl-poets profess: Since in maaarif order, all things are spiritual all is mystery within mystery.

Modern sufis believe in the Kuran ; and in an express covenant on the day of eternity without beginning the day of Alast between the assemblage of the souls of men and the supreme soul of Godwherefrom they were detached. Without great piety, virtue, and fortitude based on a knowledge of the dignity of the soul of man he cannot attain this stage. The shaikh passeth the murid to the influence of the Pir long since deceased ; and then, in all things, the murid seeth the Pir.


By the shaikh, he is led to Muhammad, whom, in all things, he seeth. Some make eleven stages: The murid fleeth from all, and seeketh God.

The Awarif-ul-Maarif – (English) – (PB)

The murid keepeth the heart in austerity and in strife against sin ; and enflish it water softkhullat. The murid maketh all the limbs full of recollection of God ; and of aught else void, ulfat. The murid maketh himself void of despicable qualities, and joined to laudable qualities, uii-i shaghf. The murid maketh himself the slave of love, and joineth himself to tajrid outward separationand to tafrid inward solitude.

The following are mxarif used in sufi, ism: The end of tasawwuf lieth in pronouncing the six principles ; and in conforming thereto with the heart. The iman of common folk famm is: Many pursue the ‘ilm-i-tarikat knowledge of the Path and wander into error, becoming: In all engilsh seventy-three orders, whereof the true order is only one, the firkat-i- najat the party of salvation. Manifest is their iman faith. Proceeding with only a lamp, they have reached the resplendent sun ; at first only imitation, they have reached truth God.

The Kuran lxxviii, 18 says: These, in life, outwardly bore the form of man ; but inwardly were brutes. From these evils, repentance before ebglish will free one.

Give thyself to a murshid spiritual guide who, by his prayers, will show thee in dreams the evil parts of thy character till they shall pass away.

Shahab al-Din Abu Hafs Umar Suhrawardi – Wikipedia

As the lover delights in his beloved, so doth the darvish in his murshid. Be not heaven nor hell— we adore Thee. This order believes that God has entered into them ; and that the divine spirit entereth all who are devout. This order believes that God is joined with every en- lightened being ; that He is as flame, and the soul as charcoal ready awarig flame ; and that the soul, by union with Awaric, becometh God.

From these two orders are derived the five following orders: For full information regarding the many orders of the sufis, f refer the reader to Malcolm’s History of Persia, vol.